Listed below are a few of the sources that contributed to the successful development of the TurboCoag© and are intended to support and supply additional information as to the effectiveness of electrocoagulation as well as highlight the current demand for water across the globe. 

By clicking on a title below you will be redirected to a link that provides the full text or a .pdf will automatically download for you.



Aluminum Electrochemistry in Electrocoagulation Reactors

A Comparison of Aluminum and Iron-Based Coagulants for Treatment of Surface Water in Sarasota County, Florida

Alum Dose Rates and Cost Estimates

Aluminum Found Effective for Treating Natural Waters

Aluminum Behavior in Electrocoagulation Processes

Aluminum Electrochemistry in Electrocoagulation Reactors

Comparing Aluminum and Iron Coagulants to Remove Organic Carbon, Color, and Turbidity from Florida Slough

Comparison of COD Removal from Pharmaceutical Wastewater by Electrocoagulation, Photoelectrocoagulation, Peroxi-electrocoagulation and Peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation Processes

Electrochemical Alkaline FeVI Water Purification and Remediation

Electrocoagulation as a Wastewater Treatment

Electrocoagulation COD Removal Mechanism

Electrocoagulation in Wastewater Treatment

Electrocoagulation of Cutting Oil Emulsions using Aluminum Plate Electrodes

Electrocoagulation Technology in Wastewater Treatment, A Review of Methods and Applications

Estimating Dosing Rates and Energy Consumption for Electrocoagulation Using Iron and Aluminum Electrodes

Aluminum Electrode Dissolution in Electrocoagulation Process

Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Steady-State Floc Blanket Performance

Enhancing Suspended Solids Removal from Wastewater Using Fe Electrodes

Fundamentals, Present and Future Perspectives of Electrocoagulation

Chemical and Electro-coagulation Techniques in Coagulation-Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment - A Review

Inherently Safer Water Purification Technology

Oil Removal with Al Salts Vs Al EC Plates

Operating Cost Analysis and Treatment of Domestic Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Using Aluminum Electrodes

Removal of Dexamethasone from Aqueous Solution and Hospital Wastewater by Electrocoagulation

Separation of Pollutants from Restaurant Wastewater by Electrocoagulation

Simultaneous Removal of Cadmium and Turbidity in Contaminated Soil-Washing Water by Electroflotation

Technology Overview of Electrocoagulation

The Future for Electrocoagulation as a Localized Water Treatment Technology

Treatment of Domestic Wastewater by Electrocoagulation in a Cell with Fe-Fe Electrodes

Treatment of Domestic Wastewater by Electrocoagultion in a Cell with Fe-Fe Electrodes

Treatment of Domestic Wastewater by Electrocoagulation

Treatment of Petrochemical Wastewater Containing Phenolic Compounds by Electrocoagulation Using a Fixed Bed Electrochemical Reactor

Water Treatment Using Electrocoagulation by Ritika Mohan

Acid Mine Drainage

Acid Mine Drainage and Effects on Fish Health and Ecology, A Review

Acid Mine Drainage Remediation Options, A Review

Case Study Argo Tunnel Site, Clear Creek, CO

Clean Water - Water Treatment at Mining Sites

Growing Fish in High TDS Chloride Treated Mine Water

Kinetic Aspects of Gold and Silver Recovery in Cementation with Zinc Power and Electrocoagulation Iron Process

Study on Metals Recovery Recycling from Acid Mine Drainage Phase IA, Literature Survey

Watershed Operations, Decker’s Creek Acid Mine Drainage, West Virginia

Agricultural Wastewater

Agricultural Water Optimized Use, Recycle and Reuse Through Mobile Advanced Wastewater Treatment Technology

Treating Poultry Litter with Aluminum Sulfate

Arsenic Removal

Arsenic in Drinking Water

Arsenic Removal by Electrocoagulation Using Combined Al-Fe Electrode System and Characterization of Products

Arsenic Removal by Ferric Chloride

Arsenic Removal from Groundwater using Ferric

Assessing Arsenic Removal Technologies

Basis for Development of Technologically Feasible Arsenic Treatment Levels

EPA Technologies and Costs for Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water

Selective Removal of Arsenic and Monocalent Ions from Brakish Water Reverse Osmosis Concentrate

Desalination Techniques

Cost of Brackish Groundwater Desalination in Texas

Energy Consumption and Performance for Various Desalination Processes

Overview of Desalination Techniques

Industrial Wastewaters

Electrocoagulation in the Treatment of Industrial Waters and Wastewaters

Fertilizer Wastewater Treatment

Iron and Steel Manufacturing Wastewater

Laboratory and Pilot Testing of Electrocoagulation for Removing Scale-forming Species from Industrial Process Waters

LEAD Removal from Industrial Wastewater by Electrocoagulation

Metal Finishing Wastewater

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Working for Ohio Plastics Recycler

Pulp and Paper Industry Wastewater Treatment

Study of an Electrocoagulation (EC) Unit for the Treatment of Industrial Effluent of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Treatment of Cooling Tower Blowdown Water Containing Silica, Calcium and Magnesium by Electrocoagulation

Water Use and Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Industry

Produced Water

A Time to Review the Produced Water Treatment Technologies, A Time to Look Forward for New Management Policies

An Integrated Framework for Treatment and Management of Produced Water

Challenges in Reusing Produced Water

Evaluation of the Beneficial Re-use of Produced Water, A Review of Relevant Guidlines and Produced Water Toxicity

Is Reverse Osmosis Effective for Produced Water Purification, Viability and Econ Analysis

Offsite Commercial Disposal of Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Waste Availability, Options and Costs

Oil and Gas Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use in the Western United States

Petroleum Wastewater Treatment

Petroleum Wastewater Treatment 2

Petroleum Refining Water/Wastewater use and Management

Treatment of Produced Water by Electrocoagulation

Water Treatment Technology for Oil and Gas Produced Water – Sullivan

Other Sources

A Gentle Introduction to the Structure of Water

Analytical Aspects of Chemically Modified Electrodes, Classification, Critical Evaluation and Recommendations

AST-R Based Reuse as Part of the Total Water Solution for Water Stressed Regions, An Overview of Engineering Practice and Regulatory Prospective

Coal Waste Impoundments, Risks Responses and Alternatives

Current Research and Trends in Alum Treatment of Storm water Runoff


Energy Demands on Water Resources, Report to Congress

Evaluation of the Cost and Benefit of Applying Aluminum (Alum) to Little St. Germain Lake Sediments

Ferric Salts in Water and Wastewater Applications

FILMTEC Membranes, Factors Affecting RO Membrane Performance

Green Lake Alum Treatment Study

Magnesium Use and Production

NETAFIM Hydrocyclone Sand Separators (Product)

Performance of a Reverse Osmosis System when Reclaiming High pH - High Temperature Wastewater

Permeate Recovery and Fluz Maximization in Semibatch Reverse Osmosis


Purification of Floodwater by Electrolysis

Siemens Water Solutions for Cities

Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet, Side Stream Nutrient Removal

Water - An Engineering Resource

Water and Energy-United Nations

Water Reuse, Potential for Expanding the Nation's Water Supply Through Reuse of Municipal Wastewater

Water use in the US